Lesen eBook Operation Linebacker II 1972: The B-52s are sent to Hanoi (Air Campaign, Band 6) Nach Marshall Michel III – Paydayloansnsi.co.uk
Another excellent volume of Osprey s new Air Campaign series, this book gives very good and potentially controversial insight into Linebacker II It not only covers the nuts and bolts of how the missions were planned and executed by the US Air Force and the stout defense put up by the North Vietnamese It also discusses the command decisions and failures by both the Americans and the North Vietnamese during this campaign.The US conducted Rolling Thunder a three and a half year sustained aerial campaign against North Vietnam that was both limited and ineffective In 1965 the US did not have the right aircraft, munitions or the technology to conduct an effective strategic bombing campaign and would not have it until 1968 just as the bombing campaign was halted However, by the time Linebacker I was initiated in May 1972, the US had the right mix of aircraft, munitions and technology to wage an efficient and effective air campaign Mr Michel explains why certain technology and tactics not used in Rolling Thunder were effective in Linebacker This includes an explanation why chaff was not used in Rolling Thunder, but effectively used in Linebacker More effective jamming and smart munitions were also developed that resulted in a low loss rate and effective targeting during Linebacker I and II.The book details the great lengths the North Vietnamese went thru to shoot down a B 52 B 52s began bombing southern North Vietnam in Sep 1966 in support of Operation Tally Ho the interdiction campaign designed to isolate the battlefield in Northern I Corps The North moved SAM batteries into southern North Vietnam in May 1967 in the hope of downing a B 52 and made several unsuccessful attempts in 1967 and 1968 The book does not mention that though no B 52 was shot down, several were damaged by SAMs in 1968 and again in early 1972 The North attained lessons learned that resulted in success later that year The first B 52 shot down by a SAM took place in Nov 1972, not during Linebacker II A side note, the North Vietnamese even moved Soviet made KS 30 130mm AA guns to just north of the DMZ that were capable of shooting a round up to 30,000 feet at max charge a fact reported by B 52 crews in 1968 They also attempted to send MIGs into Laos in the hope of catching a B 52 cell unaware and shooting one down.At the end of the book, Mr Michel provides an interesting insight into the results of the campaign as seen from both the American and North Vietnamese view It has always been an article of faith among Americans that the bombing campaign was unquestionably successful and brought North Vietnam to its knees Proponents of strategic bombing frequently use this campaign as an example of what can be accomplished if the politicians would unleash the military However, Mr Michel reveals that the campaign came close to failure not because of the politicians, but because of the lack of will and incompetence of SAC s leadership For once it was the politicians President Nixon and Ambassador Kissinger that had the will to push on, forcing SAC s leaders to adapt Linebacker II was ultimately successful, but its success was in support of a flawed, short term goal of getting America out of Vietnam instead winning the war.On the North Vietnamese side, they arrogantly believed the US would not respond to their Easter Offensive with a renewed bombing of the North and the Hanoi area So they foolishly moved their air defense missiles south to support offensive ground operations It was a fatal error in judgement that left the Hanoi Haiphong area open to massive air attack In addition, because of d tente between the super powers, their Soviet allies did not provide advanced air defense systems like the effective SA 3 SAM and additional MIGs to defend against the renewed bombing However, the Vietnamese firmly believe they were victorious during Linebacker II, having withstood the might of US strategic military power.The author concludes that a sustained Linebacker II campaign would not have been successful whether it was conducted early in the war or later The bombings, as with most strategic bombing campaigns of the 20th Century, resulted in uniting the population of North Vietnam Though thoroughly frightening to the North Vietnamese, this shared experience only provided resolve to resist and fight on We ve seen this time and again in Britain during WWI and WWII, in Germany during WWII and during the Israeli air campaign against Egypt in 1970.I strongly recommend this book to historians of the Vietnam War as well as military planners who may have to execute another Linebacker This is by far one of the best narratives about Linebacker II since Karl J Eschmann wrote his excellent book on the campaign in 1989 Clearly the lessons of Linebacker and Rolling Thunder were applied during Desert Storm with great success However, those lessons learned from the Vietnam War can be perishable as we found during the air campaign for Kosovo in 1999 and must be constantly refreshed and relearned. After The Failed April Invasion Of South Vietnam And The Heavy US Tactical Bombing Raids In The Hanoi Area, The North Vietnamese Agreed To Return To The Paris Peace Talks, Yet Very Quickly These Negotiations Stalled In An Attempt To End The War Quickly And Persuade The North Vietnamese To Return To The Negotiating Table, President Nixon Ordered The Air Force To Send The US Ultimate Conventional Weapon, The B Bomber, Against Their Capital, Hanoi Bristling With The Latest Soviet Air Defence Missiles, It Was The Most Heavily Defended Target In Vietnam Taking Place In Late December, This Campaign Was Soon Dubbed The Christmas Bombings Using Specially Commissioned Artwork And Maps, Ex USAF Fighter Colonel Marshall Michel Describes Linebacker II, The Climax Of The Air War Over Vietnam, And History S Only Example Of How America S Best Cold War Bombers Performed Against Contemporary Soviet Air Defences In this Osprey Air Campaign book 6, author Marshall Michel uses research from both sides to effectively introduce the reader the Linebacker II, an air campaign designed to bring the North Vietnamese back to the bargaining table in order to end America s involvement in the Vietnam War.It s testament to his thoroughness that Michel canvasses not only SAC and the USAF archives, but also those of Vietnam coupled with interviews with the participants The color artwork, period photos and maps are all very good and give the reader visual cues to help understand the tactics and course of battles in the asian night.The author sets the stage very well with the strategic picture in which these events take place Both sides are analyzed as to capabilities and strengths weaknesses as well as the objectives for each side He chronicles the course of the nightly battles in the night skies where the USAF initially stumbled because of SAC trying to control the battle from afar without feedback from the local commands actually tasked with carrying out the battles.I think the author does a good job of analyzing not only what happened, but also what the effects were and how Linebacker II did what Nixon and Kissinger wanted it to accomplish the limited aim of bringing the North Vietnamese back to the peace talks so the US could get the POWs back and extricate itself from a war no one wanted to fight any longer.I think the author is frank, thoughtful and accurate in his telling of this campaign and it s aftermath and effects It s not the last word, but it s certainly a fine and accessible overview in a very readable package. Operation Linebacker II was intended to save the delicate U.S negotiations with North Vietnam for an end to the Vietnam War That operation is here authoritatively dissected here by author and USAF veteran Marshall Michel III His adroit analysis of information from U.S and Vietnamese sources provides real insights into what worked, what didn t, and why, for both sides.Christmas of 1972 found the U.S eager to disengage from the Vietnam conflict, but on something resembling its own terms The use of Strategic Air Command SAC B 52 s for conventional strike missions was intended to send a message, one that was almost fumbled by SAC s attempt to drive the show from Omaha, thousands of miles and several time zones removed from the war For this reviewer, it is unfortunately no surprise that the willingness of local commanders to challenge SAC on its poor tactics saved lives but killed careers For this reviewer, it was a pleasant surprise that the author was prepared to deal evenhandedly with the lingering controversies over Linebacker II Very highly recommended as an instructive summary of the operation. A very good book Makes for an enjoyable read on a long plane ride I was ignorant of the details of the Linebacker II operation until i read this book The reader benefits from improvements and additional info incorporated in this text since Mr Marhall s earlier book on the subject What i found most interesting was the backstory of the blunders made at the SAC Planning level largely in the interests of career advancement for the mission, leading to surprisingly high losses during the early stage of the campaign, coupled with the insight gained by the NVA who meticulously studied the B 52 ECM patterns when deployed to the southern Route Packages The dedication and adaptability of the NVA to overcome B 52 ECM defenses as well as the evolving Wild Weasel threat is also remarkable Reinforces the respect i have for both sides who fought in the conflict Finally, Michel Marshall answers some very good What If Why Not questions based on lessons learned from the missions If you know nothing about the operation, and want to learn about it from both the geopolitical as well as tactical levels This is the place to start.